What Is Investment? [All You Need to Know & Investment Options to Explore]

Investing is one of the most important aspects of personal finance and wealth management. In simple terms, investment refers to the act of allocating resources, such as money or time, with the expectation of earning a return or profit in the future.

Investment is crucial because it allows individuals and organizations to generate income and create wealth over time. By investing their money wisely, people can make their savings work for them and grow their wealth in the long run. Additionally, the investment provides a way to protect against inflation, which erodes the value of money over time.

There are many different types of investment, each with its own benefits and risks. Some common types of investments include stocks, bonds, real estate, mutual funds, and exchange-traded funds (ETFs). Each type of investment offers its own set of advantages and disadvantages, and it is important for investors to understand the risks involved before making any investment decisions.

We will explore the different types of investment and offer insights on how to choose the best investment strategy based on individual needs and goals.

Whether you are a novice investor or an experienced one, we aim to provide valuable information that will help you make informed investment decisions.

Types of Investment

Investing can be done in many different ways and there are a variety of investment vehicles to choose from. Here are some of the most common types of investment:

1. Stocks

Stocks represent ownership in a publicly traded company. When you buy stocks, you become a shareholder and have a right to a portion of the company’s earnings and assets. Stocks can be bought and sold on stock exchanges, and their prices can fluctuate depending on the company’s performance, market conditions, and other factors.

One of the advantages of investing in stocks is the potential for high returns, as stocks have historically outperformed other asset classes over the long term. However, stocks are also considered riskier than other types of investments, as their prices can be volatile and may fluctuate in response to unexpected events. Therefore, it is important to conduct thorough research on a company’s financial performance, management team, and competitive landscape before investing in its stock.

2. Bonds

Bonds are debt securities issued by governments, municipalities, or corporations. When you buy a bond, you are essentially lending money to the issuer, who promises to pay you back with interest over a predetermined period of time. Bonds are generally considered less risky than stocks, as their value is less volatile and their income stream is more predictable.

One of the advantages of investing in bonds is their lower risk compared to stocks. Bonds provide a fixed income stream and can be an effective way to diversify a portfolio. However, their returns are usually lower than stocks, especially during periods of low-interest rates.

3. Real Estate

Real estate investing involves buying, owning, or managing physical property, including land, buildings, or homes. Real estate can offer high potential returns through rental income and capital appreciation, but it can also be risky and requires a significant amount of capital.

One of the advantages of investing in real estate is the potential for steady cash flow from rental income. Real estate investments can also provide diversification benefits to a portfolio, as they are generally not correlated with stock or bond returns. However, investing in real estate requires careful research and management, as properties may require maintenance, repairs, or upgrades.

4. Mutual Funds

Mutual funds are investment vehicles that pool money from multiple investors to purchase a diversified portfolio of stocks, bonds, or other securities. Mutual funds are managed by professional fund managers and offer a convenient way for investors to access a diversified portfolio without having to pick individual stocks or bonds.

One of the advantages of investing in mutual funds is the diversification they provide. Mutual funds can also offer professional management and lower fees compared to buying individual securities. However, mutual funds are not without risk, and it is important to carefully evaluate the fund’s historical performance, fees, and management team before investing.

5. Exchange-traded funds (ETFs)

ETFs are similar to mutual funds in that they invest in a diversified portfolio of securities, but they trade like stocks on an exchange. ETFs offer lower fees and greater liquidity than mutual funds, making them an attractive option for many investors.

One of the advantages of investing in ETFs is their low cost and high liquidity. ETFs can be bought and sold like stocks, making them easy to trade, and they offer diversification benefits through exposure to multiple asset classes. However, ETFs are not immune to market fluctuations and may suffer losses during market downturns.

6. Commodities

Commodities are raw materials or primary agricultural products that are traded on exchanges, such as gold, oil, and wheat. Investing in commodities can be risky, as their prices can be volatile and may fluctuate in response to global events, supply, and demand, or other factors.

One of the advantages of investing in commodities is their potential to provide diversification benefits to a portfolio, as they are generally not correlated with other asset classes. Commodities can also be used as a hedge against inflation. However, investing in commodities can be challenging, as investors may need to have specialized knowledge and access to commodity markets. In addition, commodities can be impacted by geopolitical events, weather patterns, and other unpredictable factors, making them riskier investments.

7. Currencies

Currency investing involves buying and selling different currencies with the aim of making a profit from their exchange rate fluctuations. Currency trading can be done through foreign exchange (forex) markets, and it requires knowledge of global economic trends and political events.

One of the advantages of investing in currencies is the potential for high returns, as exchange rates can fluctuate significantly over short periods of time. Currency trading can also provide diversification benefits to a portfolio, as it is generally not correlated with other asset classes. However, currency trading can be risky and requires specialized knowledge and access to forex markets.

Risks and Returns

When investing, it is important to understand that there is a trade-off between risk and return. Generally speaking, investments with higher potential returns also come with higher risks. Conversely, investments with lower risks typically offer lower potential returns. Understanding the risk-return trade-off is crucial for investors, as it can help them to determine the appropriate level of risk to take on in order to achieve their investment objectives.

There are many factors that can influence the risks and returns of an investment. Some of the key factors include:

  1. Economic conditions: The state of the economy can have a significant impact on the performance of investments. For example, a recession may cause stocks to decline, while inflation may erode the purchasing power of fixed-income investments.
  2. Interest rates: Changes in interest rates can affect the performance of different investments in different ways. For example, when interest rates rise, bond prices typically fall, while rising interest rates may benefit stocks in certain sectors, such as financials.
  3. Market sentiment: Investor sentiment can have a significant impact on the performance of investments, particularly stocks. For example, if investors become fearful, they may sell stocks en masse, causing prices to decline.
  4. Company-specific factors: The performance of individual companies can also impact the performance of their stock prices. Factors such as earnings reports, management changes, and competitive pressures can all affect the performance of a company’s stock.

Potential Returns for Each Type of Investment

The potential returns for each type of investment can vary widely, depending on a number of factors, such as economic conditions, interest rates, and company-specific factors. Generally speaking, stocks and other equity investments have the highest potential returns but also come with higher risks. Bonds and other fixed-income investments typically offer lower potential returns, but with lower risks.

Real estate investments can also offer attractive potential returns, particularly in markets with strong demand and limited supply. Commodities and currencies can be more volatile and offer higher potential returns, but also come with higher risks.

How to Calculate Return on Investment

Return on investment (ROI) is a measure of the performance of an investment, expressed as a percentage. To calculate ROI, you need to know the amount of money invested, the amount of money earned, and the time period over which the investment was held.

The formula for ROI is:

ROI = (Net Profit / Cost of Investment) x 100

Where Net Profit = Total Earnings – Cost of Investment

For example, if you invested $10,000 in a stock and sold it a year later for $12,000, your net profit would be $2,000, and your ROI would be:

ROI = ($2,000 / $10,000) x 100 = 20%

Calculating ROI can be a useful tool for investors to evaluate the performance of their investments and make informed decisions about future investments. However, it is important to keep in mind that ROI does not take into account the risks associated with an investment, and should be used in conjunction with other measures of investment performance, such as risk-adjusted return.

Investment Strategies

Investment strategies refer to the different approaches that investors can take when investing their money. Some investment strategies are designed for long-term growth, while others are focused on generating short-term returns. Diversification is also an important investment strategy that can help investors to manage risk.

1. Long-term Investment Strategies

Long-term investment strategies are designed to help investors achieve their financial goals over an extended period of time, typically several years or more. One of the key advantages of long-term investing is the power of compounding, which allows investors to earn returns not only on their original investment but also on the returns generated by that investment over time.

Some common long-term investment strategies include:

  1. Buy and hold: This strategy involves buying investments with the intention of holding them for an extended period of time, typically five years or more. Buy-and-hold investors are less concerned with short-term market fluctuations and are more focused on the long-term potential of their investments.
  2. Dollar-cost averaging: This strategy involves investing a fixed amount of money at regular intervals, regardless of the current market conditions. Dollar-cost averaging can help investors to smooth out the impact of market volatility and build a diversified portfolio over time.

2. Short-term Investment Strategies

Short-term investment strategies are designed to generate returns over a shorter period of time, typically less than one year. These strategies are often used by investors who are looking for quick gains or who have a shorter time horizon for their investments.

Some common short-term investment strategies include:

  1. Day trading: This strategy involves buying and selling stocks or other securities within a single trading day, with the aim of profiting from short-term market movements.
  2. Swing trading: This strategy involves buying and holding stocks or other securities for a few days to a few weeks, with the aim of profiting from short-term price movements.

3. Diversification

Diversification is an important investment strategy that involves spreading your money across multiple investments to reduce the overall risk of your portfolio. By investing in a variety of different assets, such as stocks, bonds, real estate, and commodities, investors can potentially reduce the impact of market volatility on their portfolios.

Diversification can be achieved through a variety of methods, such as investing in mutual funds, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), or buying individual stocks and bonds. Diversification can also be achieved by investing in different sectors of the economy, such as technology, healthcare, and consumer goods.

How to Invest

Investing can be a great way to grow your wealth over time, but it can also be a complex process that requires careful planning and execution. Here are some steps to consider when getting started with investing:

1. Choosing a Broker

Before you can start investing, you’ll need to choose a broker to help you buy and sell securities. A broker is a financial professional or firm that acts as an intermediary between you and the markets. Brokers can help you to execute trades, provide research and analysis, and offer investment advice.

When choosing a broker, consider factors such as fees, investment options, and customer service. Look for a broker that offers low fees and a wide range of investment options, such as stocks, bonds, mutual funds, and ETFs. Also, consider the quality of customer service and the ease of use of the broker’s platform. An example of a broker service you can make use of is Access Bank Investment Management.

2. Creating an Investment Plan

Once you’ve chosen a broker, it’s important to create an investment plan that aligns with your financial goals and risk tolerance. An investment plan should outline your investment objectives, such as long-term growth or short-term income, as well as the types of investments you want to make.

When creating an investment plan, consider factors such as your age, income, and financial goals. Younger investors may have a higher risk tolerance and be more focused on long-term growth, while older investors may be more concerned with generating income in retirement. A financial advisor can help you to create an investment plan that is tailored to your specific needs and goals.

3. Monitoring Investments

Once you’ve started investing, it’s important to monitor your investments regularly to ensure that they are performing as expected. This can involve tracking the performance of individual stocks or mutual funds, reviewing your portfolio allocation, and making adjustments as needed.

When monitoring your investments, consider factors such as market trends, economic conditions, and changes to your personal financial situation. Regularly reviewing your investment plan and making adjustments as needed can help to ensure that your portfolio remains aligned with your goals and risk tolerance.

Access Bank Investment Management

Access Bank Investment Management is a subsidiary of Access Corporation that helps you make the most out of your money. It offers a range of services, including estate planning, retirement planning, tax planning, and more, all tailored to your unique needs and goals.

A team of investment managers will work with you to develop a personalized investment strategy that fits your individual needs and risk tolerance, and you’ll get a portfolio that is specifically based on your objectives and what you want to achieve.

Whether you’re interested in investing in capital and money markets or buying property anywhere around the world like the UK, the Access Investment Managers have the knowledge and expertise to help you in making the right decisions. 

Access Bank Insurance

Access Bank has partnered with Coronation Insurance to offer you the best insurance solutions to fit your lifestyle needs. With Bancassurance, you can trust that you will be provided with dependable insurance products while still enjoying your regular banking services.

These insurance products include life insurance, flexible investment, home insurance, travel insurance, motor insurance, and group life insurance, all designed to help you deal with life’s uncertainties.

If you have loved ones who depend on you financially, the life insurance policy can protect their livelihood in the event of your death. For those looking to save towards specific financial goals, the flexible investment policy provides an opportunity to do just that, while also providing insurance coverage for your invested amount.

The home insurance policy covers damage caused by flood, fire, as well as injury to visitors on your property. Travel insurance protects you from unforeseen situations when traveling abroad, while the motor insurance policy takes care of any damage to your car or other people’s vehicles. Finally, the group life insurance policy provides coverage for a group of individuals, tailored to meet their specific needs and providing financial security for the group.

Access Bank Insurance is committed to delivering best-in-class insurance solutions and prompt claim payments within 48 hours. You can also count on the robust online platform to provide end-to-end digital support. You can trust that you will be provided with the insurance coverage you need to protect your assets and your loved ones.

Access Pensions

Access Pensions is your trusted partner for securing your future. And since everyone has different needs, it offers a range of pension fund options to match your age and risk profile. Whether you are an active contributor or a retired contributor, there is a plan that fits your needs.

Access Pensions has a team of skilled professionals in financial services dedicated to ensuring that your retirement benefits are secure. There is also a provision of benefit payments for over 20,000 members of Defined Benefits (DB) schemes as well as Defined Contributions. Your benefit payments include contributions made into the RSA, as well as returns on investment that have accrued over time.

With Access Pensions, you get voluntary contributions and a retirement savings account that’ll help you reach your retirement goals. The customer care team is always available to answer your questions and provide support. You can also access these services conveniently through the USSD code, *7737*2#, which allows you to execute self-service options, obtain information about Access Pensions, generate periodic statements of account, and obtain real-time updates on retirement benefits application status, all without the need for the internet.

Read: How to Transfer Money from Domiciliary Account to Naira Account


Investing can be a great way to build wealth and achieve financial goals over the long term. There are many different types of investments available, each with its own risks and potential rewards. Some of the benefits of investing include generating income, building wealth, and hedging against inflation.

However, investing also carries risks, including the potential for loss of principal, market volatility, and economic uncertainty. It is important for investors to understand the risks associated with each type of investment and to seek professional advice before making any investment decisions.

Professional investment advice can be invaluable in helping investors make informed decisions about their investments. Investment professionals have the experience and expertise to assess the risks and potential rewards of different investments and to develop investment strategies that are tailored to each individual’s needs and goals. If you need professional advice for your investments, the Access Bank Investment Management team is just what you need to get started.

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